The family of nuclei can be summarised in a simple chart (see figure). The chart of the nuclei differs from the periodical system of elements because it does not yet include any chemical consequences of the electron shells. The focus is strictly on the number of protons (determining the charge of the nucleus) and the number of neutrons. The number of protons determines the name of the nucleus, while the number of neutrons determines the isotope.
http://lectureonline.cl.msu.edu/~mmp/kap30/Nuclear/nuc.htm (extremely nice and interactive chart of protons (y axis) and neutrons (x axis) for all possible isotopes. Shows halflifes)
http://pdg.web.cern.ch/pdg/cpep/resid_strong.html (the residual strong interaction (pions) as explanation for the forces that bind the nucleus stronger than the electric repulsion between the protons)